After an attempt to systematize and to give a terminology to the movement of the foot, the authors have studied the role of the muscle peroneus longus and muscle peroneus brevis. This work includes a brief anatomical reminder, and an analysis of electrostimulation and of electromyography. It appears to them that:–the muscles peroneus longus and peroneus brevis have no motor action on the talocrural articulation, but they are synergic with foot flexor muscles as well as with foot extensors, giving lateral stability to this articulation, avoiding varus deviation on a weight bearing limb;–the muscle peroneus longus deepens the plantar arch, enabling impulsion to stance when walking, avoiding weight bearing of the foot on its lateral side. Lastly, the authors think that plastic operations using the muscle peroneus brevis, for rupture of the Achille’s tendon, that are performed on an athlete, are not prejudicial to the lateral stability of the foot since a quite inactive muscle is involved.
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